Word Lists and Dictionaries

  1. Chinese Character Frequency Lists and Diagrams.
    The frequency lists (GB-encoded and in HMTL format) are generated by Jun Da and form part of his Chinese Text Computing website (link updated 11-10-00). As stated in his webpage, "the corpus of this study consists of 110 megabytes of modern Chinese texts from two types of sources: 1) Various online Chinese e-magazines. They are written and/or adopted for the internet and published only on the internet. 2) Chinese literature and other writings for the general public. The set of data used in this study consists of the ebooks collection of the Xi Yu Si Electronic Library."
  2. A Collection of Chinese Corpora and Frequency Lists.
    An online, searchable database that uses the following three corpora: (1) Chinese Internet Corpus, 280 million words (tokens), part of a larger multilingual corpus compiled by Serge Sharoff from the Internet in February 2005; (2) The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (created by Richard Xiao and Tony McEnery); and (3) Chinese Business Corpus, 30 million words (tokens), compiled by Serge Sharoff from the Internet in 2008 along with other business corpora (for English and Russian)). (added 03.21.12)
  3. Chinese Character Frequency List.
    GB-encoded frequency list of Chinese characters at the Linguistic Data Consortium website. (Added 1.30.02)
  4. CEDICT (Chinese-English Dictionary) Project
    A continuation of Paul Denisowski's Online Dictionary Project, this is Erik Peterson's website for carrying on the dictionary project that was begun by Paul Denisowski that aims towards building a collaborative, downloadable (as opposed to searchable-only), dictionary that is free for non-commercial, individual use. (Original link added 12.16.97; link to Erik Peterson's website created 08.11.00; some wording change thanks to Jerry B.) (GB/Big5)

    CEDICT is also incorporated into Unicode Consortium's online Unihan Database. Other dictionaries used in the Unihan Database include: Kangxi, Morohashi, Dae Jaweon, Hanyu Da Zidian, Nelson, Matthews, Karlgren, Fenn, Cowles, and Meyer-Wempe (with Cowles and Meyer-Wempe for Cantonese pronunciation). (See further details at my ChinaLinks 3 webpage concerning the Unihan Database. Also see the annotated link below to the Unihan Database: Unicode FTP Site.) (Added 09.12.02.)
  5. CJEDictionary (Chinese-Japanese-English Dictionary)This is Jeremy Thorpe's freely-downloadable software dictionary for the .NET platform that can be used with such freely-available dictionary databases as Edict (Japanese) and CEDICT (traditional and simplified Chinese). Powerful search functions include search by term, pronunciation, definition, and radical/strokes. (Software required: .NET Framework, a component of the Windows operating system.) (Added 04.25.04.)
  6. Chinese Character Dictionary.
    Front-end software prepared by EuroAsiaSoftware that combines the files from CEDICT (see above) and Unicode's Unihan Database. For English and other non-Chinese Win9x/NT/2000; 9+ MB downloadable file; contains over 35,000 words/expressions; search on English, Pinyin, radical, and number of strokes; includes a simple Chinese text editor and a Pinyin editor. (No external decoder needed.) (Link added 10.22.99, thanks to Stan Goertzen and Don Klein; updated info and URL 08.07.00.)
  7. Chinese-English Database
    Marilyn Shea's searchable database of the vocabulary from the Practical Chinese Reader Series: Books I and II from Beijing Language Institute; built with Paradox. (Updated 06.09.00)
    For bibliographies of published Chinese-related dictionaries, see other webpages maintained by Marilyn Shea. She has an extensive list of English-Chinese, Chinese-English Dictionaries. Her Chinese Translation Dictionaries is arranged alphabetically by language -- i.e., Chinese dictionaries of various languages, including Japanese, Korean, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Finnish, Arabic, Tangut etc. She also has a miscellaneous collection of Specialized Dictionaries that are arranged by topic and include, under "Chinese," dictionaries of synonyms, particles, classifiers, and so forth. (Added 10.06.00)
  8. CEL (Chinese-English Lookup)
    Richard Warmington's software for Windows, created to make Paul Denisowski's CEDICT, public-domain electronic Chinese-English dictionary, more accessible. (Link added 7.19.98, URL updated 1.16.01.)

    For an online, searchable interface to CEDICT, see Erik Peterson's Chinese-English Dictionary.

    For off-line, searchable interfaces to CEDICT combined with Unihan, see EuroAsiaSoftware's freely-downloadable Chinese Character Dictionary, Alexander Schonfeld's shareware, CQuickTrans, and the online Unihan Database.

    For Macs, see Konrad Mitchell Lawson's freely-downloadable Fool's Lexicon, which is a Macintosh client for CEDICT, which also supports searching of Jim Breen's EDICT (see screenshots). (Link added 04.17.01)

    For a PalmPilot version, see Mike's freely-downloadable Palm CEDICT. (Link added 04.17.01)

  9. Unihan Database: Unicode FTP Site.
    The Unihan database file (Unihan.txt -- 16228 KB as of 10 Sept 1999, and 25685 KB by 27 Mar 2002) is downloadable from Unicode's official (case-sensitive) FTP site.

Online Searchable Dictionaries

  1. Character Dictionary
    Erik Peterson's online searchable Chinese<->/English dictionary; look up by English, Pinyin, radical/stroke, and Cantonese, and obtain print results in GIF, UTF-8 (Unicode), GB (simplified), or Big5 (traditional). Part of Erik Peterson's On-line Chinese Tools. (Link added 11.02.96)
  2. Chinese Characters Dictionary Web
    Rick Harbaugh's website that allows for simultaneous search of major Chinese character dictionaries on the web, including the WWW CJK-English Dictionary (SJIS), the Buddhist Dictionary (JIS), the Cantonese Pronunciation Dictionary (Big5), Taiwanese Dictionary (Big5), Guoyu Cidian (Big5), Thomas Chin's Hakka pronuncing dictionary of Chinese characters, the WWW JDIC (SJIS), the Unicode Unihan database, and RH's Zhongwen Zipu (Chinese Character Genealogy). (Link added 02.10.98.)
  3. Chinese Computer Terminology 
    Search Chinese or English keywords online. It is provided by the Hong Kong Computer Society and the Chinese Computer Federation to publicize the official set of computer terms in Chinese published by the Standard Terminology Assessment Committee of China. (This website was renamed from "English-Chinese Computer Terminology". URL updated on 02.10.98.)
  4. Chinese Database
    Sergei Starostin's database of circa 4000 characters; one of several Etymological Databases provided by Sergei Starostin. (Link added 8.11.98.) (No decoder needed) (English/Russian)
  5. Chinese-English Dictionary     (Mirror Site B)
    Erik Peterson's online, searchable interface to Paul Denisowski's CEDICT. Searches can be conducted using Chinese (GB/Big5/Unicode), Pinyin, or English. Results show the Chinese word, the Pinyin representation of the word, and the English definition. (Link added 7.19.98, mirror sites added 9.1.99.)
  6. CJKV-English Dictionary
    A. Charles Muller's online, XML-formatted, UTF8-encoded, searchable database of CJK characters and compounds related to East Asian cultural, political, and intellectual history. The database is searchable via: Pinyin, Wade-Giles, Hangul, Korean MC, McCune-Reischauer, Katakana, and Japanese Romanization. (Link updated 04.01.09)
  7. Dictionary of Chinese Character Variants (異體字字典)
    Website maintained by the Mandarin Promotion Council, Ministry of Education, R.O.C. Variants of characters and radicals (bushou) and scanned images from early dictionary sources (Shuowen Jiezi, Guangyun, Jiyun, etc.), definitions, pronunciation (in Zhuyin Fuhao), Chinese dialect characters (and info on Chinese dialect dictionaries), etc. Search by radical-plus-stroke count or total-stroke count. (Link added 03.31.01 thanks to Thomas Chan) (Big5)
  8. Dictionary of Chinese Characters (CCDict)
    Thomas Chin's online, searchable dictionary for character readings of Mandarin, Cantonese, and Hakka (Kejia) for 53,000+ Chinese characters, and for character meanings for 21,000+ characters. (Dialect-specific characters can be found using radical/stroke or English lookup.) Multiple search methods include Mandarin (Hanyu) Pinyin, Cantonese, Hakka, English, four-corner, bushou (radicals), Sino-Japanese, and Sino-Korean. (No decoder needed.)(Link added 09.01.99)
  9. English-Chinese Online Dictionary
    H. Xin's online, searchable dictionary with output in GB, Big5, Image, or FT image. (Link added 09.01.99)
  10. WebSaru Online Chinese English/English Chinese Dictionary. English-Chinese Dictionary, Chinese Segment & Annotation Tool, and Online Translation Tool (Chinese<->English, and a number of other languages). (Link added 02.28.10)
  11. English-Chinese LDS Terms
    Erik Peterson's online searchable dictionary of Latter Day Saints terms.
  12. Lexiconer Online English-Chinese and Chinese-English Dictionaries (GB/Big5).
    Online searchable English-Chinese (GB/Big5) and Chinese-English character dictionary. (Link added 05.03.04.)
  13. Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage (CUHK).
    Search in English, Pinyin, or by radical and stroke count, etc. Includes compounds, phrases, and idioms related to the word searched, as well as words and phrases containing a given Chinese character *anywhere* in the compound, phrase, or idiom; audio files for pronunciation of individual Chinese characters. Also linked to other databases, including Unihan, with info on encoding, other dialect pronunciations (e.g., Cantonese in Yale romanization), etc. (Link added 10.06.00 thanks to Charles Hammond.) (Big5)
  14. Hanno Lecher's Links to Online Chinese Dictionaries.
    Annotated links to dictionaries (Chinese only or Chinese included) that is part of HL's China WWW VL - Internet Guide for China Studies: Language. (Link added 08.11.98, updated 12.19.98.)
  15. Pristine Lexicon.
    Quote from website: "free Chinese-English-Pinyin reference service [containing] over 120,000 entries ... from Chinese-English dictionaries in the public domain and specialized glossaries and industry-specific dictionaries developed in-house by Pristine Communications..." (Link added 10.02.99, thanks to Don Klein.)
  16. WrittenChinese.Com. The very user-friendly, Chinese-English online dictionary can be searched via Chinese characters (traditional or simplified), Pinyin romanization, or English. Pronunciation of characters can be accessed; sample sentences are available from Jukuu; and information on the characters is also available (e.g., animated stroke order, semantic radical and stroke count, Cantonese pronunciation, etc.).
  17. Unihan Database
    On-line, searchable database maintained by John Jenkins that is part of the Unicode Home Page. Database contains image maps for the "unified Han" set of logographic characters for Chinese (including dialect characters), Japanese, Korean and historical Vietnamese; comparative encoding info on various schemes (i.e., mapping to major standards (GB 2312, GB 12345, CNS 11643, CCCII, Big5, JIS X 0208, JIS X 0212, KS C 5601, KS C 5657) and other mappings (PRC Telegraph, ROC Telegraph, EACC, Xerox), dictionary definitions, and indices to authoritative dictionaries (Kangxi, Morohashi, Dae Jaweon, Hanyu Da Zidian, Nelson, Matthews, Karlgren, Fenn, Cowles, Meyer-Wempe). (Link imported on 10.23.99 (and updated 09.12.02) from links and info in my ChinaLinks 3 on Unicode and Chinese Character Sets and Internal Codes. For a freely-downloadable copy of the database as a text file from Unicode's official FTP site, see Unihan Database: Unicode FTP Site above.)
  18. Zhongwen Zipu 
    Rick Harbaugh's Chinese Character Genealogy: Chinese characters searchable by Pinyin, etc.; etymology and glosses in English, pronunciations in Pinyin. (no decoder needed) (See also RH's Chinese Characters Dictionary Web, listed above.)
  19. Zai Xian Han Dian (在线汉典. ZDic.NET).
    Search in Chinese or by either Pinyin or radical-stroke count. (Link added 02.19.06)